Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act generally requires a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement for the significant transfer of nuclear materials, equipment or components from the United States to another nation. In addition, these agreements, commonly referred to as “Agreements 123,” facilitate cooperation in other areas such as technical exchanges, scientific research and security discussions. In conjunction with other non-proliferation instruments, in particular the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 123 agreements help advance the principles of non-proliferation in the United States. They create a legal framework for important cooperation with other countries. In order for a country to reach a 123-nation agreement with the United States, that country must meet the non-proliferation standards set out in the 123 agreement. The U.S. State Department is responsible for negotiating 123 agreements, with technical assistance and approval from DOE/NNSA and in consultation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the same letter, Obama explained the possible unilateral and multilateral non-military reactions that should be used in the event of Iran`s violation of the agreement, but the president said, “Ultimately, it is important to maintain the flexibility to decide what reactive measures we and our allies deem appropriate for any non-compliance.”  Flexibility meant that Obama had previously opposed the establishment of “sanctions for minor violations of the agreement.”  Under U.S. law, the JCPOA is a non-binding political commitment.   According to the U.S.
State Department, this is not, among other things, an executive agreement or a contract. [Citation required] There are many false reports that this is an executive agreement.   Unlike treaties that require two-thirds of the Senate to ratify, political commitments do not require congressional approval and are not legally binding (although in some cases they may be binding under international law for the United States).  [f] The agreements to which the IAEA is a party include international agreements concluded by the IAEA as a separate international organization with states or other international organizations.